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2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology, Virology and Infectious Disease, will be organized around the theme “Novel Advancements and Therapeutic Acuities in Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases”

Microbiology 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Microbiology 2019

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\r\n Microbiology refers to the detailed study of microscopic organisms, such as fungi, bacteria, protozoa and archaea. It is the branch which includes fundamental and vast research on the biochemistry, ecology, cell biology, physiology, evolution and clinical features and characteristics of microorganisms, along with the host’s response to these microbes.

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\r\n Clinical Microbiology is the field of medical science that deals with diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of infectious diseases that are caused mainly by microorganisms.

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\r\n Since all the microorganisms are not harmful to human beings, clinical microbiologists must be able to tell the transformation between normal microorganisms expected in a specimen and those causing an infectious disease. Day by day, more advanced microorganisms are getting evolved and being discovered and with their emergence they develop more and more resistance towards antibiotics. So accordingly they are cultured in an artificial medium in the clinical laboratories and then it is differentiated whether it belongs to bacteria or fungi or virus or parasite class of microorganism during the time of illness or during the time it gets activated in the host’s body.

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\r\n As mentioned above, not every microbe is hazardous to health rather some are helpful in keeping a healthy digestive system, in diary factories, bakeries and so on but to all those who bring alternations in healthy and well-being conditions of human beings  are termed as pathogens or the harmful ones.

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\r\n Each pathogen has its own activating or residing sites along with its peculiar and individualistic characteristics, sources and symptoms.

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\r\n Firstly, basing on the age category to which they spread infections, they cause:

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  • \r\n Pediatric Infectious Diseases
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  • \r\n Adult Infectious Diseases
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\r\n Secondly, basing on the mode of transmission, they cause:

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  • \r\n Vector Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
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  • \r\n Food and Water Borne Infectious Diseases
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  • \r\n Airborne and Contact Infectious Diseases
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 Variations and changing lifestyle have also led to the development of new threats and hazards to public health from simple infections to life taking dangers. Health authorities depend on both research labs and medical consultants for information on the occurrence of these circumstances. An infectious disease professional is a professional of internal medicine, well skilled on studying and highly equipped in treating the infectious diseases. ID experts have knowledge in contaminations of the sinuses, heart, lungs, brain, bones, pelvic organs, bowel and urinary tract. Their thorough research and activity focuses on all kinds of infections, including those instigated by bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites. Infectious disease specialists also get extra training regarding how infections spread, how the body fights, reacts and responds to the infection caused, and infection control and prevention.

Pediatrics is a branch of medicine which deals with and comprises the medical care and treatment of new borns, infants and children with an age limit from 0-18 i.e. from birth till 18 years of age.  Influenza, Cholera, Diarrhea, vomiting tendencies in babies. Sepsis is very common and contagious form of infections in babies. When the infection level goes to the extreme, it disturbs the sleeping pattern and food in-taking capacity of babies projecting them with pain, unease and difficulties.

  • Lyme disease
  • HIV / AIDS
  • Complicated pneumonias
  • Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone)
  • Tuberculosis
  • Persistent fever or fever of unknown origin
  • Lymphadenopathy (inflammation of the lymph nodes)
  • Recurrent infections
  • Complicated methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection

\r\n Adult infectious diseases are diseases which are caused due to pathogens from bacteria, fungi, viruses and other pathogens affecting the adults aging 18 years and above. These kinds of pathogens infect the health conditions in adults making them unfit and sick leading to many health hazards.

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\r\n Infections in adults may be very common as the common cold or flu to as dreadful as AIDS, HIV and so on. Infection in adults such as,

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  • \r\n Infections in immune-compromised hosts
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  • \r\n Infections in pregnancy, including Zika
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  • \r\n Infections in persons with substance use disorders
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  • \r\n Infections of travellers and foreign-born persons
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  • \r\n Systemic fungal infections
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  • \r\n Native and device-related orthopedic infections
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  • \r\n Native and device-related central nervous system (CNS) infections
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  • \r\n Ear, nose and throat (ENT) and eye infections
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  • \r\n Bronchiectasis and pneumonia
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  • \r\n HIV and its infectious and non-infectious complications
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  • \r\n PEP (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis) and PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) to prevent HIV infection
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  • \r\n Sexually transmitted infections
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  • \r\n Hepatitis C mono-infection and co-infection
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  • \r\n Tick and mosquito-borne infections and zoonoses
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  • \r\n Vaccines and vaccine-preventable infections
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  • \r\n Clostridium difficile infection
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\r\n The organism uses that person's body to sustain itself, reproduce, and colonize. These infectious organisms are known as pathogens.

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\r\n Vector borne and Zoonotic diseases (VBZD) are infectious diseases that require a medium to spread and spread through animal hosts or vectors. Vector borne diseases, like dengu, malaria, are those in which an organism or insects (particularly the mosquitoes) transmit the pathogen or germ content from one host to another and commonly with increased virulence of the pathogen in the vector. Zoonoses like as Avian or Bird Flu, Swine Flu, are diseases that can be spread from animals to humans by either contact with the animals or through vectors that transmit zoonotic pathogens from animals to humans or when the humans in-take those affected birds or animals. While many vectors borne diseases, such as yellow fever, malaria, dengue, are rarely seen, we are directly prone to vector borne diseases those which originate in warmer climates. 

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\r\n Nutritious food is a necessity of life, and failure to obtain sufficient calories, macronutrients (fats, proteins, carbohydrates), and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals) can result in illness and death. If proper and healthy food not consumed, food can also be a source of foodborne illnesses, resulting from eating spoiled food or food contaminated with microbes, chemical residues or toxic substances. The possible effects of climate variation on foodborne illness, nutrition, and safety are habitually indirect, but on a universal scale, it can result in huge amount of population gets affected. Waterborne diseases are caused by a variety of microorganisms, biotoxins, and toxic impurities, which lead to distressing illnesses such as cholera, schistosomiasis and further gastrointestinalinfections. Occurrence of water-borne diseases is more common during precipitation events (rainfall, snowfall) because climate change increases the cruelty and frequency of some major sleet from waterborne diseases. 

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\r\n Airborne diseases are stimulated by pathogenic microbes those are slightly adequate to be liquidated from an unhealthy person through sneezing, coughing, laughing and handy personal interaction with the infected person or aerosolization of the microbe.  The discharged microbes remain deferred in the air on dust particles, respiratory and water droplets. Infection is caused when the microbe is inhaled or contacts mucus membranes or when discharges remain on a surface are touched.  Contact Diseases are spread when a diseased person has direct physical contact with an uninfected person and the microbe is passed from one to the other. Contact diseases can also be spread by indirect contact with an infected person’s atmosphere or private items.

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\r\n Virology refers to the detailed study of viruses, their structure, shape, habit and habitat. Viral Oncology or Cancer Virology deals with the study of cancer cells. A virus named oncolytic virus tends to infect and destroy the cancer cells. These types of viruses tend to destroy the cancer cells or tumor cells through oncolysis process where they release a new virus cells or virions which help in the destruction of the remaining tumor cells and there by stimulate anti-tumor immune response. Cancer or Tumor virus infections are caused by Oncogenic DNA or RNA viruses.

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\r\n Infectious diseases befall when organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi come into our bodies and make us sick. These sicknesses can be passed from person to person. Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the tenderness of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Hepatitis A is an intense irresistible infection of the liver instigated by the hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis B is an infectious disease instigated by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which affects the liver. It can cause both intense and chronic infections. HCV is spread mostly by blood-to-blood contact linked with intravenous drug. The IHV focusses in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and other chronic viral diseases, such as Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, and the Human Papilloma Virus Infection.

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\r\n Immunization (vaccination) can be discrete as active immunity formed by vaccine. It is the process to create resistance and immunologic retention corresponding to natural infection but deprived of risk of illness. There are two rudimentary categories of vaccines: live attenuated and inactivated. Live attenuated vaccines are produced by altering and changing the disease-producing virus or bacterium in a research laboratory. Vaccines derived from bacterium are called as bacterial vaccine and that from virus is viral vaccine. The subsequent vaccine retains the ability to duplicate itself and produce body's immunity, but generally does not cause illness. Inactivated vaccines can be self-possessed either by portions of viruses or bacteria, or by whole of the either.

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\r\n Antimicrobials/ Antibiotics/ Antibacterial are the medications used in the treatment, cure and prevention of bacterial infections. They may either destroy or constrain and minimize the bacterial growth rate. Rare or only few antibiotics own antiprotozoal action whereas, antibiotics are not active against viruses such as the common cold or influenza and their inappropriate use allows the increase of resistant organisms. These are a group of drugs that are used to treat infections caused by microorganisms/microbes/germs. A parasite is a type of microbe that needs a body to live on or in alternative living being (host). Antibiotics can be taken orally as liquids, tablets, capsules and they can also be given by injection. An antimicrobial is semisynthetic or synthetic which kills or constrains the development of microorganisms but causes little or no injuries to the host. Wholly antibiotics are antimicrobials, nevertheless antimicrobials are antibiotics.

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\r\n The immune system of human beings is classified into two categories, innate immunity (natural)   and adaptive immunity (acquired). There are major differences between the two divisions, but they share some cell functions and components. All living organisms are subjected to get attacked from disease-causing agents or pathogens. This process of protection gets more sophisticated as organisms become more complex. Multicellular animals have devoted cells or tissues to deal with infection. Other rejoinders are slower but are more adapted to the infecting agent. Jointly, these protections are known as the immune system. The main portions of the immune system are: the natural barriers (skin, mucous membranes, etc.), nonspecific cells (phagocytes, natural killer cells, etc.), and nonspecific molecules (complement, interferon, etc.). In addition, response of immune system towards invasion of microorganism depends on many factors, such as nutrition, general health, age, and genetic makeup of any human host.

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\r\n An Epidemic is a rapid and wide spread or breakout of infectious diseases among the people residing closely to each other. The study of molecular and cellular viscera establishing the immune system, incorporating their interface and function, is the key science of immunology. Autoimmune diseases are an extensive range of similar diseases in which the immune system produces an inaccurate retro action against tissues and organs, privy cells, resulting in inflammation, in addition to damage. Cell-based immunotherapies are authorized to be a competent for some malignancies. Immune effector cells for instance, Macrophages, Lymphocytes, Natural Killer cells (NK Cell), Dendritic cells, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) and so on.

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\r\n Neglected tropical sicknesses (NTDs) are a miscellaneous collection of tropical contaminations which are particularly common in low-income inhabitants in emerging regions of Africa, Asia, and America. They are instigated by a variety of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths. These diseases are distinguished with big three diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria), which usually receive better treatment and investigation funding. In sub-Saharan Africa, the consequence of these diseases as a group is like tuberculosis and malaria. Neglected tropical sicknesses co-infection can also make HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis deadlier.

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\r\n More than ever we are facing the threat of new diseases that apparently erupt out of nowhere. More than 70% of all new developing infectious diseases derive from animal host man-made wide spreading diseases have all arisen therefore from the annihilation of the rainforests, loss of wildlife habitats, and climate variation. Evolving infectious disease causes scruple rates upwards of 20 million people every year.  Developing the reach to reinforce, train and educate teams of researchers to help detect, prevent and control infectious diseases in animals and people. Focusing on the early and beforehand identification of dangerous wildlife pathogens and speedy and effective response to prevent and control the spread of disease much previously before they become an important and prominent threat to public health. 

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\r\n It has been already stated that infectious diseases are provoked and triggered by the microorganisms like bacteria, virus, fungi or parasite. The microorganism that causes infections are called as pathogens. In the case of fungal diseases, it is often caused due to fungi present in the atmosphere of the region. Basically, fungi lives outdoor that is in soil, plants and trees as well as indoors on surfaces and human skin. Most of the fungi are not dangerous. When it comes to bacteria, majority of the bacteria won’t hurt or cause any harm to human and only less than 1% of the total makes people sick but the rest are helpful.

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\r\n The peripheral nervous system diseases can cause severe neurological disorders when related to infections this may occur due to direct or indirect contact of the microbes or due to any secondary immune over activation. HIV is a retro virus which is transmitted by sexual contact and contaminated blood. Herpes simplex virus type-2 causes neurological morbidity more than any other viruses. Through various studies it is said, about 45 million people are affected due to this type of virus in USA. In the case of blood related infectious diseases, the primary or initial pathogens in human like HIV, HCV, HBV are caused due to contaminated blood or blood spills. It is also said the blood infections are caused by bacteria in the body like lungs or skin and slowly enters the human bloodstream. Blood infections are very serious form of infections because they lead to organ damage, clotting of blood during sepsis reduces the flow of blood and in several cases one or more organs fails which may even tend to lead to worst conditions, like when blood pressure drops the heart weakens, as a result the patient is prone towards shock and within a fraction of second varied organs in our body gets fails to operate and thereby this results in the death of the patient.

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\r\n A public health microbiologist contributes to the prevention of communicable diseases, such as tuberculosis, plague, diphtheria, rabies, foodborne illnesses and sexually transmitted diseases, by observing and researching the relationships between microorganisms, diseases and public health. The Public Health and Microbiology attentiveness includes studies and work particularly on the field of microbial pathogenesis, molecular genetics and epidemiology, values of public health, virology, and environmental and industrial microbial processes. Communal Health Microbiology provides and furnishes professional scientific knowledge and laboratory examination for noticeable bacterial pathogens and bacterial/toxin-mediated outbreaks.

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\r\n Diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are performed by doctors along with the help of lab technicians and thereby determines what kind of infections occurred. They even tend to diagnose and check the symptoms during the process of image scanning or any lab tests. The laboratory and clinical test includes a variety of infectious diseases which have almost similar symptoms and signs. In some cases, the body fluid or the sample collected for testing reveals the microbe that invaded into human body causing illness. This makes the doctor to diagnose in an efficient way and proceed with the treatments. During the diagnosis they follow various forms of diagnostic procedures or methods which include Blood test, Throat Swabs, Spinal tap, Urine test, Stool sample and so on. Apart from these they undergo image scanning techniques and Biopsies, Knowing the proper type of germ the physician/doctor prescribes the equivalent dosage of drug/medications.

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\r\n vaccine is an incapacitated form of microorganism or virus which is inserted in the body to simulate actual infection. Due to the fact the vaccinated microbes are 'dead,' they do not motive a person to end up sick. Relatively, vaccines stimulate and enhance an immune response by using the body in a better way to fight off all sorts of infection. It sums up infectious disease objectives and non-infectious ailment targets. To produce vaccine-mediated defence is a multifaceted mission. Currently the vaccines are well developed and more efficient empirically, with less or zero expertise on how they set off the immune system. Their early defensive efficacy is usually consulted via the induction of antigen-particular antibodies. However, there's more to antibody-mediated protection than the peak of vaccine-prompted antibody titers.

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\r\n Clinical or medical specialty is that the branch of drugs that additional exactly deals with the clinical manifestations of pathology that consists within the isolation of 1 or additional viruses that are to blame for human pathogens by direct or indirect methodologies like cellular culture, serology, organic chemistry and biology. Basically, medical specialty is taken into account because the sub field of biology of drugs. Diagnostic medical specialty has currently become the thought in practice. Various ways have get existence for the laboratory designation of microorganism infections which has microorganism culture, matter detection, macro-molecule detection in medical specialty designation. Moreover, it's same that diagnostic medical specialty has modified apace because of molecular techniques and clinical sensitivity of medical science assays.

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\r\n Antibiotics and Antivirals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Antibiotics are strong medicines that fight against the bacterial infection by stopping them to reproduce or kill bacteria. They tend to induce the body’s natural immune system to work and respond against the pathogens to eliminate them. Intake of proper dosage and physician prescribed antibiotics can save lives, but antibiotics are not effective against viral infections like common cold or flu. In those cases, the doctor or the physician prescribes antiviral drugs to fight against the infection by making the reproduction of viruses to inhibit.

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