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7th International Conference on Clinical Microbiology, Virology and Infectious Diseases, will be organized around the theme “”

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Bacteria have been around for a long. They can live singly of a host( unlike Viruses) and do not change their inheritable structure snappily or fluently. Boosters for bacterial vaccines are basically the same vaccine you got ahead, boosting your vulnerable system indeed more efficiently.

exemplifications of bacterial vaccines include

  • DPT vaccines — diphtheria, pertussis( whooping cough), and tetanus

  • HIB vaccines in nonage — epiglottitis, meningitis, and pneumonia

  • Meningococcal in immaturity and a supporter in council — bacterial meningitis

  • Typhoid for trippers

  • Pneumococcal vaccine — pneumococcal pneumonia

Unlike bacteria, viruses aren't considered to be alive in their own right. Viruses bear a host. They ’re not as hardy as bacteria, but they're constantly and fleetly shifting their inheritable material in order to survive. COVID, the primary viral vaccine was for influenza. Now, times have changed.

exemplifications of viral vaccines include

  • Influenza

  • COVID- 19

  • Varicella — chickenpox

  • HPV

  • MMR — measles, mumps, and rubella

  • Hepatitis B

  • Polio

Covid-19 or coronavirus is a novel virus with high affinity to spread in the community In December 2019, it was first identified in Wuhan, China The symptoms are non-specific, so fever, cough, dyspnea, are prominent features Respiratory failure and mortality have also been reported.

The best way to avert and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based sanitizers rub frequently and not touching your face.

The COVID-19 virus spreads generally discharge from the nose or through droplets of saliva when an affected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s necessary that you also practice respiratory manners for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow. At this time, there are no particular vaccines or treatments for COVID-19.

 Symptoms of Coronavirus:

  • Fever

  • Tiredness

  • Dry Cough

Few people may also experience:

Prevention and control of infections (IPC) is a scientific approach and practical solution designed to prevent patients and health workers from harm caused by infection. It is focused on infectious diseases, epidemiology, social science and the health system. IPC holds a unique position in the field of patient safety and high-quality universal healthcare coverage as it is important to health workers and patients at each healthcare conference.

  • Hand hygiene

  • Prevention of surgical site infections

  • IPC to combat antimicrobial resistance

  • Injection safety

  • Burden of health care-associated infections

  • Ebola response and recovery

  • IPC country capacity-building

  • Prevention of bloodstream infections

  • Prevention of urinary tract infections.

Clinical or medical specialization is that the field of additional medicines deals specifically with the clinical manifestations of pathology consisting of the isolation of 1 or additional viruses to blame direct or indirect methodologies such as cell culture, serology, organic chemistry and biology for human pathogens. Basically, due to the sub-field of drug biology, a medical specialty is considered. In practice, the diagnostic medical specialty is now becoming a thought. There are various ways for the laboratory classification of infections of microorganisms that have a culture of microorganisms, identification of matter, detection of macro-molecules in the designation of medical specialty. Moreover, it's the same that diagnostic medical specialty has modified apace because of molecular techniques and clinical sensitivity of medical science assays.

vaccine is a type of microorganism or virus that is injected into the body to induce real infection. Due to the fact the vaccinated microbes are 'dead,' they do not motive a person to end up sick. Relatively speaking, vaccines promote and improve immune response by properly using the body to fight all kinds of infections. It sums up infectious disease objectives and non-infectious ailment targets. To produce vaccine-mediated defense is a multifaceted mission. The vaccines are generally well developed and empirically more effective, with less or no knowledge on how to set off the immune system. Their early defensive efficacy is usually consulted via the induction of antigen-particular antibodies. However, there's more to antibody-mediated protection than the peak of vaccine-prompted antibody titers.

Many infectious diseases have similar signs and symptoms. Your body fluid tests will usually reveal signs of the underlying mistake that triggers your health problem. It helps to tailor the treatment to your doctor. Through sticking a needle into a vein, usually in your neck, a technician gets a sample of your blood. This painless take a look at needs you to urinate into instrumentality. You will be tutored to clean up the reproductive organ area with associate in nursing antiseptic pad and collect the wee-wee center to avoid potential contamination of the specimen. You could also take samples from your throat or other wet areas of your body with a sterile swab. As a result, a research laboratory will scan the specimen for parasites and alternative species. This technique gives a snapshot of your mood through a fastidiously positioned needle between your lower spine's bones. Typically, together with your knees, you may be asked to lie on your face forcing up to your chest.

Symptomatic diagnosis

Human immune systems are classified into two categories: innate (natural) immunity and adaptive (acquired) immunity. There are major differences between the two divisions, but they share some cell functions and components. All living organisms are subjected to get attacked from disease-causing agents or pathogens. When species become more complex, this mechanism of defense becomes more sophisticated. Multicellular animals have devoted cells or tissues to deal with infection. Other rejoinders are slower but are more adapted to the infecting agent. Jointly, these protections are known as the immune system. The main portions of the immune system are: the natural barriers (skin, mucous membranes, etc.), nonspecific cells (phagocytes, natural killer cells, etc.), and nonspecific molecules (complement, interferon, etc.). Furthermore, the immune system's response to microorganism invasion depends on many factors, such as nutrition, general health, age, and any human host's genetic makeup.

  • Innate immune system

Bacteria are living things with just one cell. These look like spheres, sticks, or spirals under a microscope. They are so tiny that a 1,000 line could fit through a pencil eraser. Some bacteria will not harm you-less than 1% of the various types of bacteria will make people sick. Many of them are supportive. Many bacteria help digest food, kill cells that cause disease, and provide nutrients that the body needs. Also used in the production of healthy foods such as yogurt and cheese. But some bacteria are harmful (Infectious Bacteria) that make you ill. Fungal diseases are often caused by environmentally common fungi.  Most fungi are not toxic, but there are some types that can be harmful to health. Mild skin diseases of the fungus may look like a rash and are very common. In the lungs, fungal diseases sometimes mimic other diseases such as flu or tuberculosis. Many fungal diseases, such as fungal meningitis and infections of the bloodstream, are less common than infections of the skin and lung, but can be lethal.

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a miscellaneous collection of tropical contaminations which are particularly common in low-income inhabitants in emerging regions of Africa, Asia, and America. They are instigated by a variety of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminthes. Three major diseases differentiate these diseases, which usually receive better treatment and funding for research. The effect of these diseases as a group is like tuberculosis and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infection with neglected tropical diseases can also make HIV / AIDS and tuberculosis more deadly.

  • Malaria

  • Dengue

  • Leishmaniasis

  • Chagas disease

  • African trypanosomiasis

Antibiotics are drugs used to help and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these drugs. Bacteria, not humans, come antibiotic resistant. These bacteria may also infect humans and are harder to treat than passive bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance encompassing resistance to medicines to treat infections caused by other microbes as well, like parasites (e.g. malaria), virus (e.g. HIV) and fungi(e.g. Candida). The main categories of antimicrobial agents are

  • Disinfectants

  • Antibiotics

  • Role of antibiotics in oculoplastic surgery

  • Antiseptics

  • Sulfonamides, etc.

Infectious disease epidemiology is the study of how and why infectious conditions emerge and spread among different populations, and what strategies can help or contain the spread of disease at the population level. Disease causation, transmission, outbreak disquisition, complaint surveillance, forensic epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, biomonitoring, webbing and comparisons of treatment goods similar as clinical studies are the major areas of Epidemiological studies. Many scientific fields such as biology are used by epidemiologists to improve and understand the processes of disease, statistics to use data efficiently and draw appropriate conclusions, social sciences to more understand proximate and distal causes, and exposure assessment engineering.

Microbiology is the hard subject to study of living organisms that are tiny to be visible with the naked eye. This includes 





protozoa and algae, 

inclusively known as 'microbes'. These microbes play crucial role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation or biodeterioration, climate change, food spoilage, the cause and control of disease, and biotechnology.

Viral oncology is a subsection of oncology concerned with the treatment of tumors with viral particles. Oncovirus infections are common, but these infections infrequently affect in cancer. One or more additional insults, similar as chronic inflammation, environmental mutagens, or immunosuppression, are needed for cancer development

Foodborne complaint is a gastrointestinal( GI) tract infection or inflammation caused by food or drink containing dangerous bacteria, worms, contagions, or chemicals. Common symptoms of the foodborne diseases include nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and chills. Waterborne conditions are caused by microorganisms that are substantially transmitted through defiled freshwater. Data is available for some water, hygiene- related and sanitation conditions similar as cholera, salmonellosis, or shigellosis. Some of common Food and Water borne conditions are

• Travelers’ diarrhea.

• Giardia and cryptosporidium.

• Dysentery.

• Salmonella.

• Typhoid fever.

• Cholera.

• Hepatitis A

• Norovirus( Norwalk Virus)

• Campylobacter.

•E. coli.

Vector- borne and zoonotic conditions are caused by Virus, bacteria or parasites that are transmitted to humans from creatures or insects. Some conditions that appear in creatures must be transmitted through a “ vector ”(e.g., mosquito) in order to infect a mortal. Vector borne conditions, similar as malaria, are those in which an organism, generally mosquitoes, ticks, or mites, carries a pathogen from one host to another, with the pathogen in the vector generally being more dangerous (virulent). Zoonosis, similar as avian flu, is viruses that can be transmitted from animals to humans through animal touch or through vectors that bring zoonotic pathogens from animals to humans.

  • Bird flu

  • Swine flu

  • Dengue

  • Malaria

  • Yellow fever

Human virology goes beyond re-emerging viral conditions. This addressing all aspects of  human contagions, medical virology and virus convinced clinical conditions. Infectious conditions transpire when organisms similar as bacteria, contagions, spongers or fungi come into our bodies and make us sick. These sicknesses can be passed from person to person.


  • Hepatitis C

  • Hepatitis B

  • Human papilloma virus infection

Virology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of the biology of contagions and viral conditions, including the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, elaboration and clinical aspects of contagions. Viruses are contagious patches that are loaded with inheritable material( DNA or RNA) that fit themselves into host cells, splice themselves into the host genome and get themselves replicated. The colorful structures and all of the places of the life cycle of the contagions is important in virology both for bracket and for contriving ways to destroy the contagion or limit its dangerous goods.

  • Structure and Classification of Virus

  • Viral Diseases and Host Defenses

  • Molecular Biology Research and Viral Therapy

Airborne diseases are spread through coughing, sneezing, laughing and close contact. Contact Diseases are transmitted when a person with the disease has direct contact with a person who doesn't have the disease, and the microbe is passed from one to the other.  Presently, prevention of new cases is based on following infection control measures. Recommendations for precautions include:

  • Wash your hands frequently,

  • Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze( use the bend of your elbow, rather of your hands, or a towel),

  • Avoid close contact( i.e. kissing, hugging, participating eating implements or mugs) with people who are sick, and when you're sick,

  • Clean and disinfect regularly touched shells( doorknobs, countertops, toys,etc.), especially if someone is sick, and

  • Stay home when you're sick.

Adult infectious diseases are caused by bacterial, fungal, viral and other pathogens that affect adults of 18 years age and older. Such types of viruses affect adults ' health conditions, leaving them unhealthy and ill, resulting in many health hazards and even death. Some of the of Adult Infectious Diseases are stated below:


  • Blood infections.

  • Cancer-related infections.

  • Hepatitis B and C.

  • Human papilloma virus (HPV)

  • Staph infections (Staphylococcus aureus infections)

  • Antibiotic-resistant infections like MRSA.

  • Respiratory infections like flu, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), pneumonia and tuberculosis

Pediatric infectious diseases specialists treat a wide range of  infectious and immunologic diseases similar as those caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. They  concentrated on  perfecting  opinion, treatment and prevention of encyclopedically important severe and life- hanging  infections in children.   When the  position of infection goes to the extreme, it disturbs babies' sleeping patterns and food in taking capability to project them with pain, discomfort, and trouble.

  • Lyme  complaint 

  • HIV/ AIDS 

  • Complicated pneumonias

  • Osteomyelitis( infection of the bone) 

  • Tuberculosis 

  • patient fever or fever of unknown origin 

  • Lymphadenopathy( inflammation of the lymph bumps)

Microbes that cause disease are called pathogens. Each pathogen has its own activating or residing sites along with its peculiar characteristics and symptoms.


Microbes can enter the body through the four spots listed below:


Respiratory tract (mouth and nose) e.g. influenza virus which causes the flu.

Gastrointestinal tract (mouth oral cavity) e.g. Vibrio cholerae which causes cholera.

Urogenital tract e.g. Escherichia coli which causes cystitis.

Breaks in the skin surface e.g. Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus.


Firstly, based on the age category to which they spread infections, they cause Pediatric infectious diseases, Adult infectious diseases, Secondly, basing on the mode of transmission, they cause Vector borne and zoonotic infectious diseases, Food and water borne infectious diseases, Airborne and contact infectious diseases

Clinical microbiology focuses on the isolation and characterization of infectious organisms so they are managed and treated in patients. Infections are caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. It has different kinds of analysis used to identify and isolate the microbes. 

Isolation of microbes

Characterization of microbes

Scope of clinical microbiology