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Microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see and include things such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the naked eye. Microbiology provides the information needed to create vaccines and treatments for diseases. Biologists use microbiology to develop new methods of combating illness. Microbiologists are often employed by companies to develop new products that kill viruses and bacteria.
- Microbes and diseases
- Types of microbiology
- Uses of microbiology
Clinical Microbiology is a branch of medical science which mainly deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. It is concerned about various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. Clinical Microbiology plays an important role in patient care by providing the cause of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility data to physicians. Rapid diagnosis of pathogens is necessary to facilitate the successful administration of antibiotics and to increase treatment rates. It has different methods of analysis used to identify and isolate the microbes. Isolation of microbes
- Characterization of microbes
- Clinical trials
- Scope of clinical microbiology
Not every microbe is harmful to health, but some are helpful in maintaining a healthy digestive system, in daily factories, in bakeries, etc. bring alternations in health and well-being conditions of human beings are termed as pathogens or the harmful ones. Each pathogen has its own activating or residing sites along with its peculiar and individualistic characteristics, sources and symptoms.
Firstly, based on the age category to which they spread infections, they cause
- Pediatric infectious diseases
- Adult infectious diseases
- Secondly, basing on the mode of transmission, they cause:
- Vector borne and zoonotic infectious diseases
- Food and water borne infectious diseases
- Airborne and contact infectious diseases
Pediatrics is a branch of medicine which deals with and comprises the medical care and treatment of newborns, infants, and children with an age limit from 0-18 i.e. from birth till 18 years of age. Pediatric infectious diseases are diseases that are caused due to pathogens from bacteria, fungi, viruses and other pathogens. These kinds of pathogens infect the well-being of children and make them unhealthy, ill and sick causing several harm and dangers. These infections may lead to Influenza, Cholera, Diarrhea, vomiting tendencies in babies. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RVS) and Sepsis are very common and contagious form of infections in babies. When the level of infection goes to the extreme, it disturbs babies ' sleeping patterns and food-in-taking ability to project them with pain, discomfort, and trouble.
- Lyme disease
- HIV / AIDS
- Complicated pneumonias
- Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone)
- Persistent fever or fever of unknown origin
- Lymphadenopathy (inflammation of the lymph nodes)
Adult infectious diseases are diseases caused by bacterial, fungal, viral and other pathogens that affect adults of 18 years age and older. Such types of viruses affect adults ' health conditions, leaving them unhealthy and ill, resulting in many health hazards and even death. Some of the examples of Adult Infectious Diseases are:
- Blood infections.
- Cancer-related infections.
- Hepatitis B and C.
- Human papilloma virus (HPV)
- Staph infections (Staphylococcus aureus infections)
- Antibiotic-resistant infections like MRSA.
- Respiratory infections including flu, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), pneumonia and tuberculosis
Airborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microbes which are small enough and released from an infected person through sneezing, coughing, laughing and close personal contact or microbe aerosolization. The microbes that have been discharged remain suspended on particles of dust, respiratory and water droplets in the air. Illness is caused when the microbe is inhaled or contacts mucus membranes or when secretions remaining on a surface are touched.Contact Diseases are transmitted when an infected person has direct physical contact with an uninfected person and the microbe is transmitted from one person to another. Contact diseases may also spread through indirect contact with the environment or personal items of an infected person. The presence of wound drainage or other body discharges indicates an increased potential for transmission risk and contamination of the environment. Precautions to create a barrier and procedures that reduce or eliminate the microbe in the atmosphere or on personal belongings are the basis for interrupting direct contact disease transmission. Some of the Airborne and Direct contact diseases include:
Group A streptococcus
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, genetic material parasitic particles contained in a protein coat and virus-like agents. This focuses on the following viral aspects: their composition, identification and evolution, infection and exploiting host cells for reproduction, their interaction with the physiology and immunity of the host organism, the diseases they cause, the isolation and cultivation techniques and their use in research and therapy. Virology is considered a sub-field of medicine or microbiology.
- Structure and Classification of Virus
- Viral Diseases and Host Defenses
- Molecular Biology Research and Viral Therapy
Infectious diseases befall when organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi come into our bodies and make us sick. These sicknesses can be passed from person to person. Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the liver's tenderness and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the organ's tissue. Hepatitis A is an intense irresistible infection of the liver instigated by the hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis B is a hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectious disease that affects the liver. It can cause infections that are both severe and chronic. HCV is spread mostly by blood-to-blood contact linked with intravenous drug. IHV focuses on the prevention of
HIV / AIDS
Human papilloma virus infection
Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (VBZD) are infectious diseases whose transmission involves animal hosts or vectors. Vector borne diseases, such as malaria, are those in which an organism, usually mosquitoes, ticks, or mites, carries a pathogen from one host to another, with the pathogen in the vector generally being more dangerous (virulent). Zoonosis, such as avian flu, is viruses that can be transmitted from animals to humans through animal touch or through vectors that bring zoonotic pathogens from animals to humans. While many VBZD, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and murine typhus, are rarely seen in the United States, we are directly susceptible to VBZD that are found in warmer climates and vulnerable due to global trade and travel. Many VBZD are climate sensitive and ecological shifts associated with climate change are expected to impact the distribution and incidences of these diseases.
Foodborne disease is a gastrointestinal (GI) tract infection or inflammation caused by food or drink containing harmful bacteria, worms, viruses, or chemicals. Common symptoms of the foodborne disease include nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and chills. Waterborne diseases are caused by microorganisms that are mostly transmitted through contaminated freshwater. Data is available for some water, hygiene-related and sanitation diseases such as cholera, salmonellosis, or shigellosis. Some of common Food and Water borne diseases are:
Giardia and cryptosporidium.
Norovirus (Norwalk Virus)
Oncoviruses are implicated in about 12% of all cancers in humans. At least one of these oncoviruses is harbored by a large number of the world's population, but only a small proportion of these individuals develop cancer. The interplay between host and viral factors is a complex process that works together to create a microenvironment. Oncovirus infections are common, but cancer is rarely caused by these infections. One or more additional insults are required for cancer growth, such as chronic inflammation, environmental mutagens or immunosuppression.
Classification of oncoviruses
Immunization (vaccination) can be discrete as active immunity formed by vaccine. It is the process of creating tolerance and immunological retention that is consistent with natural infection but deprived of disease risk. There are two rudimentary categories of vaccines: live attenuated and inactivated. Live attenuated vaccines are developed in a research laboratory by altering and modifying the virus or bacterium that causes the disease. Bacterium-derived vaccines are referred to as bacterial vaccines and viral vaccines. The subsequent vaccine retains the ability to duplicate and produce immunity for the body but does not generally cause disease. Inactivated vaccines can be self-possessed either through parts of viruses or bacteria, or throughout either of them.
Pneumovax 23 (Pro)
Prevnar 13 (Pro)
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution in defined populations (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants of conditions of health and disease. Disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, forensic epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, biomonitoring, screening and comparisons of treatment effects such as clinical studies are the major areas of Epidemiological studies. Many scientific fields such as biology are used by epidemiologists to improve and understand the processes of disease, statistics to use data efficiently and draw appropriate conclusions, social sciences to better understand proximate and distal causes, and exposure assessment engineering.
Types of epidemiological studies
Applied field epidemiology
Epidemiologic characters of infectious diseases
An antimicrobial is an agent that destroys or prevents the growth of microorganisms. It is possible to group antimicrobial medicines according to the microorganisms against which they mainly function. Antibiotics are used for bacteria, for example, and antifungals are used for fungi. They can also be classified by their function. Agents which kill microbes are called microbicidal, and those which merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while it is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis to use antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection. The main classes of antimicrobial agents are:
Role of antibiotics in oculoplastic surgery
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a miscellaneous collection of tropical contaminations which are particularly common in low-income inhabitants in emerging regions of Africa, Asia, and America. They are instigated by a variety of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminthes. Three major diseases differentiate these diseases, which usually receive better treatment and funding for research. The effect of these diseases as a group is like tuberculosis and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infection with neglected tropical diseases can also make HIV / AIDS and tuberculosis more deadly.
Bacteria are living things with just one cell. These look like spheres, sticks, or spirals under a microscope. They are so tiny that a 1,000 line could fit through a pencil eraser. Some bacteria will not harm you-less than 1% of the various types of bacteria will make people sick. Many of them are supportive. Many bacteria help digest food, kill cells that cause disease, and provide nutrients that the body needs. Also used in the production of healthy foods such as yogurt and cheese. But some bacteria are harmful (Infectious Bacteria) that make you ill. Fungal diseases are often caused by environmentally common fungi. Most fungi are not toxic, but there are some types that can be harmful to health. Mild skin diseases of the fungus may look like a rash and are very common. In the lungs, fungal diseases sometimes mimic other diseases such as flu or tuberculosis. Many fungal diseases, such as fungal meningitis and infections of the bloodstream, are less common than infections of the skin and lung, but can be lethal.
Diseases caused by bacteria
Most common bacterial diseases
Examples of fungal diseases
Types of fungal diseases
Human immune systems are classified into two categories: innate (natural) immunity and adaptive (acquired) immunity. There are major differences between the two divisions, but they share some cell functions and components. All living organisms are subjected to get attacked from disease-causing agents or pathogens. When species become more complex, this mechanism of defense becomes more sophisticated. Multicellular animals have devoted cells or tissues to deal with infection. Other rejoinders are slower but are more adapted to the infecting agent. Jointly, these protections are known as the immune system. The main portions of the immune system are: the natural barriers (skin, mucous membranes, etc.), nonspecific cells (phagocytes, natural killer cells, etc.), and nonspecific molecules (complement, interferon, etc.). Furthermore, the immune system's response to microorganism invasion depends on many factors, such as nutrition, general health, age, and any human host's genetic makeup.
Innate immune system
Adaptive immune system
Many infectious diseases have similar signs and symptoms. Your body fluid tests will usually reveal signs of the underlying mistake that triggers your health problem. It helps to tailor the treatment to your doctor. Through sticking a needle into a vein, usually in your neck, a technician gets a sample of your blood. This painless take a look at needs you to urinate into instrumentality. You will be tutored to clean up the reproductive organ area with associate in nursing antiseptic pad and collect the wee-wee center to avoid potential contamination of the specimen. You could also take samples from your throat or other wet areas of your body with a sterile swab. As a result, a research laboratory will scan the specimen for parasites and alternative species. This technique gives a snapshot of your mood through a fastidiously positioned needle between your lower spine's bones. Typically, together with your knees, you may be asked to lie on your face forcing up to your chest.
PCR- based diagnostics
Meta genomic sequencing
A vaccine is a type of microorganism or virus that is injected into the body to induce real infection. Due to the fact the vaccinated microbes are 'dead,' they do not motive a person to end up sick. Relatively speaking, vaccines promote and improve immune response by properly using the body to fight all kinds of infections. It sums up infectious disease objectives and non-infectious ailment targets. To produce vaccine-mediated defense is a multifaceted mission. The vaccines are generally well developed and empirically more effective, with less or no knowledge on how to set off the immune system. Their early defensive efficacy is usually consulted via the induction of antigen-particular antibodies. However, there's more to antibody-mediated protection than the peak of vaccine-prompted antibody titers.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Vaccine
Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis (DTP) Vaccines
Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCVs)
Clinical or medical specialization is that the field of additional medicines deals specifically with the clinical manifestations of pathology consisting of the isolation of 1 or additional viruses to blame direct or indirect methodologies such as cell culture, serology, organic chemistry and biology for human pathogens. Basically, due to the sub-field of drug biology, a medical specialty is considered. In practice, the diagnostic medical specialty is now becoming a thought. There are various ways for the laboratory classification of infections of microorganisms that have a culture of microorganisms, identification of matter, detection of macro-molecules in the designation of medical specialty. Moreover, it's the same that diagnostic medical specialty has modified apace because of molecular techniques and clinical sensitivity of medical science assays.
Methods used in diagnostic virology
Antiviral susceptibility testing
Prevention and control of infections (IPC) is a scientific approach and practical solution designed to prevent patients and health workers from harm caused by infection. It is focused on infectious diseases, epidemiology, social science and the health system. IPC holds a unique position in the field of patient safety and high-quality universal healthcare coverage as it is important to health workers and patients at each healthcare conference.
Prevention of surgical site infections
IPC to combat antimicrobial resistance
Burden of health care-associated infections
Ebola response and recovery
IPC country capacity-building
Prevention of bloodstream infections
Prevention of urinary tract infections.
Covid-19 or coronavirus is a novel virus with high affinity to spread in the community In December 2019, it was first identified in Wuhan, China The symptoms are non-specific, so fever, cough, dyspnea, are prominent features Respiratory failure and mortality have also been reported.
Maximum people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience temperate to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with elemental medical problems like diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.
The best way to avert and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based sanitizers rub frequently and not touching your face.
The COVID-19 virus spreads generally discharge from the nose or through droplets of saliva when an affected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s necessary that you also practice respiratory manners for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow. At this time, there are no particular vaccines or treatments for COVID-19.
Symptoms of Coronavirus:
Few people may also experience: